Salivary metabolomics of well and poorly controlled type 1 and type 2 diabetes
Bencharit, S., Carlson, J., Byrd, W. C., Howard-Williams, E. L., Seagroves, J. T., McRitchie, S., Buse, J. B., & Sumner, S. (2022). Salivary metabolomics of well and poorly controlled type 1 and type 2 diabetes. International Journal of Dentistry, 2022, 1-8. Article 7544864. https://doi.org/10.1155/2022/7544864
Objective: The concentrations of endogenous metabolites in saliva can be altered based on the systemic condition of the hosts and may, in theory, serve as a reflection of systemic disease progression. Hemoglobin A1C is used clinically to measure long-term average glycemic control. The aim of the study was to demonstrate if there were differences in the salivary metabolic profiles between well and poorly controlled type 1 and type 2 subjects with diabetes. Subjects and Methods. Subjects with type 1 and type 2 diabetes were enrolled (n = 40). The subjects were assigned to phenotypic groups based on their current level of A1C: <7 = well-controlled and >7 = poorly controlled. Demographic data, age, gender, and ethnicity, were used to match the two phenotypic groups. Whole saliva samples were collected and immediately stored at -80°C. Samples were spiked using an isotopically labeled internal standard and analyzed by UPLC-TOF-MS using a Waters SYNAPT G2-Si mass spectrometer.
Results: Unsupervised principal components analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least squares regression discrimination analysis (OPLS-DA) were used to define unique metabolomic profiles associated with well and poorly controlled diabetes based on A1C levels.
Conclusion: OPLS-DA demonstrates good separation of well and poorly controlled in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. This provides evidence for developing saliva-based monitoring tools for diabetes.