Purpose: To begin to explore whether the association between mental illness (MI), cigarette dependence, and unsuccessful quit attempts differs across particular demographic subgroups.
Methods: This study examines data from adults aged 18 years or older participating in the 2008-2012 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health. Analyses explored the moderating effects of age, gender, and race and/or ethnicity on associations between three levels of MI: (serious mental illness [SMI], any mental illness but no SMI, and no MI) and two smoking-related outcomes (cigarette dependence among current smokers and successful quitting among ever daily smokers).
Results: After confirming that adults with MI were more likely to be dependent on cigarettes and less likely to successfully quit smoking, particularly among those with SMI, adjusted analyses indicated that age (but not gender or race/ethnicity) moderated the associations between MI and cigarette dependence and between MI.
Conclusions: The magnitude of the association between MI and cigarette dependence and between MI and successful quitting appears to be stronger among older adults than among younger adults. Identifying subgroups at particular high risk of cigarette dependence is paramount to targeting smoking prevention, cessation, and treatment services appropriately. Published by Elsevier Inc.