Reported exposure to pro-tobacco messages in the media: Trends among youth in the United States, 2000–2004
Using data from three waves of the school-based National Youth Tobacco Survey conducted in 2000 (n=33,772), 2002 (n=23,439) and 2004 (n=23,540), this study examined youth reports of exposure to pro-tobacco messages in the mass media, including images of smoking and tobacco advertising. The study measured smoking status, exposure to images of smoking on television and in movies, exposure to advertisements for tobacco products in stores, on the Internet, and in newspapers and magazines. Youth exposure to pro-tobacco messages declined within all media channels studied from 2000 to 2004, except the Internet. Despite these declines, most youth in the U.S. remain exposed to pro-tobacco messages: 81% saw images of smoking on television or in movies, 85% saw tobacco ads in stores, 50% saw tobacco ads in newspapers and magazines and 33% saw tobacco ads on the Internet.
Duke, J., Allen, JA., Pederson, LL., Mowery, PD., Xiao, H., & Sargent, JD. (2009). Reported exposure to pro-tobacco messages in the media: Trends among youth in the United States, 2000–2004. American Journal of Health Promotion, 23(3), 195-202.