Reductions in emissions from deforestation from Indonesia's moratorium on new oil palm, timber, and logging concessions
Busch, J., Ferretti-Gallon, K., Engelmann, J., Wright, M., Austin, K. G., Stolle, F., ... Baccini, A. (2015). Reductions in emissions from deforestation from Indonesia's moratorium on new oil palm, timber, and logging concessions. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 112(5), 1328-1333. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1412514112
To reduce greenhouse gas emissions from deforestation, Indonesia instituted a nationwide moratorium on new license areas ("concessions") for oil palm plantations, timber plantations, and logging activity on primary forests and peat lands after May 2011. Here we indirectly evaluate the effectiveness of this policy using annual nationwide data on deforestation, concession licenses, and potential agricultural revenue from the decade preceding the moratorium. We estimate that on average granting a concession for oil palm, timber, or logging in Indonesia increased site-level deforestation rates by 17-127%, 44-129%, or 3.1-11.1%, respectively, above what would have occurred otherwise. We further estimate that if Indonesia's moratorium had been in place from 2000 to 2010, then nationwide emissions from deforestation over that decade would have been 241-615 MtCO(2)e (2.8-7.2%) lower without leakage, or 213-545 MtCO(2)e (2.5-6.4%) lower with leakage. As a benchmark, an equivalent reduction in emissions could have been achieved using a carbon price-based instrument at a carbon price of $3.30-7.50/tCO(2)e (mandatory) or $12.95-19.45/tCO(2)e (voluntary). For Indonesia to have achieved its target of reducing emissions by 26%, the geographic scope of the moratorium would have had to expand beyond new concessions (15.0% of emissions from deforestation and peat degradation) to also include existing concessions (21.1% of emissions) and address deforestation outside of concessions and protected areas (58.7% of emissions). Place-based policies, such as moratoria, may be best thought of as bridge strategies that can be implemented rapidly while the institutions necessary to enable carbon price-based instruments are developed.