• Article

Redesign of the 2005 pollution abatement costs and expenditure survey

This paper presents the results of a comprehensive redevelopment and evaluation effort led by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to assess the accuracy of the responses to the Pollution Abatement Costs and Expenditures (PACE) survey. The data collected by the PACE survey is important because it is the only comprehensive source of pollution abatement costs and expenditures related to environmental protection in the U.S. manufacturing sector. The PACE Survey has been administered over twenty times since 1973, yet until now, the accuracy of the survey responses has never been formally evaluated. The methods used to evaluate the survey include one-on-one interviews and site visits with manufacturing facilities to develop independent cost estimates which were compared to reported survey responses. Overall this study finds, assuming a reasonable margin of error, that the PACE survey responses reflect actual pollution abatement capital expenditures and operating costs. In addition, these interactions with facilities had a major impact on the design of the 2005 PACE survey and are also discussed in this paper.


Gallaher, M., Morgan, CL., & Shadbegian, RJ. (2008). Redesign of the 2005 pollution abatement costs and expenditure survey. Journal of Economic and Social Measurement, 33(4), 309-360.