Redefining Fatherhood in Families with White Adolescent Mothers
Thirty white primiparous adolescent mothers were interviewed about social support and family relationships and about the role of the child's father. The interviews revealed that men other than the child's biological father must be considered in any discussion of adolescent parenthood. The relationships and types of support from four groups of fathers are described in detail. These groups are current husbands of the young mothers, former husbands or boyfriends who are the children's biological fathers, current boyfriends (not the biological fathers), and the mothers' own fathers or stepfathers
Gershenson, H. P. (1983). Redefining Fatherhood in Families with White Adolescent Mothers. Journal of Marriage and Family, 45(3), 591-599.