A rare tRNA-Arg(CCU) that regulates Ty1 element ribosomal frameshifting is essential for Ty1 retrotransposition in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Kawakami, K., Pande, S., Faiola, B., Moore, D. P., Boeke, J. D., Farabaugh, P. J., ... Garfinkel, D. J. (1993). A rare tRNA-Arg(CCU) that regulates Ty1 element ribosomal frameshifting is essential for Ty1 retrotransposition in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics, 135(2), 309-320.
Translation of the yeast retrotransposon Ty1 TYA1(gag)-TYB1(pol) gene occurs by a +1 ribosomal frameshifting event at the sequence CUU AGG C. Because overexpression of a low abundance tRNA-Arg(CCU) encoded by the HSX1 gene resulted in a reduction in Ty1 frameshifting, it was suggested that a translational pause at the AGG-Arg codon is required for optimum frameshifting. The present work shows that the absence of tRNA-Arg(CCU) affects Ty1 transposition, translational frameshifting, and accumulation of mature TYB1 proteins. Transposition of genetically tagged Ty1 elements decreases at least 50-fold and translational frameshifting increases 3-17-fold in cells lacking tRNA-Arg(CCU). Accumulation of Ty1-integrase and Ty1-reverse transcriptase/ribonuclease H is defective in an hsx1 mutant. The defect in Ty1 transposition is complemented by the wild-type HSX1 gene or a mutant tRNA-Arg(UCU) gene containing a C for T substitution in the first position of the anticodon. Overexpression of TYA1 stimulates Ty1 transposition 50-fold above wild-type levels when the level of transposition is compared in isogenic hsx1 and HSX1 strains. Thus, the HSX1 gene determines the ratio of the TYA1 to TYA1-TYB1 precursors required for protein processing or stability, and keeps expression of TYB1 a rate-limiting step in the retrotransposition cycle