We determined the demographic, health, functional, and satisfaction factors related to lower-limb prosthesis or wheelchair use among veterans with lower-limb amputation. Forty-two veterans were recruited from the 20th National Disabled Veterans Winter Sports Clinic and the 26th National Veterans Wheelchair Games. Participants were at least 18 years of age, had a lower-limb amputation, and were either prosthesis or wheelchair users. Level of amputation was the most significant health-related characteristic determining the veterans' use of a prosthesis versus a wheelchair (p = 0.02). Veterans who had a higher level of amputation and used a prosthesis reported significantly greater difficulty navigating a ramp (p = 0.03), getting in and out of cars and buses (p = 0.03), carrying 10 lb of groceries (p = 0.02), and participating in sports and leisure activities (p = 0.03). The parameter "satisfaction related to prosthesis" did not determine selection of mobility device type. The interaction of demographics, health-related characteristics, and mobility device characteristics affects functional performance and influences the use of prostheses, wheelchairs, or both in persons with lower-limb amputation. Long-term outcome assessments may help determine factors associated with either transition from one device to another or combined use of the devices over time.