Prospects in Nasal Vaccination Against Clinically Relevant Pathogens and Select Agents
Intranasal immunization induces mucosal immune responses in both the respiratory system and at other distant mucosal surfaces, as well as systemic immune responses. However, most vaccines are still given via the parenteral route, and to date, the only intranasal vaccine that is available to the public in the U.S. is a live, attenuated influenza vaccine. Over the last 10 years, there have been substantial efforts to develop effective nasal vaccination strategies in animal models against several different pathogens, some being successful enough to progress to phase I clinical trials. The purpose of this review is to discuss: 1) the progress made with representative models; 2) how vaccination through the intranasal route overcomes many of the shortcomings associated with the use of parenteral vaccines; and 3) antigens that have been demonstrated to be effective vaccines when administered intranasally. This review focuses on vaccine strategies against specific pathogens that are significant public health threats, or have the potential to be used as bioweapons
Hickey, A., Wilson-Welder, J. H., & Metzger, D. W. (2011). Prospects in Nasal Vaccination Against Clinically Relevant Pathogens and Select Agents. Drugs of the Future, 36(8), 589-599.