Proposed nutrient composition for fortified complementary foods
Lutter, C. K., & Dewey, K. G. (2003). Proposed nutrient composition for fortified complementary foods. Journal of Nutrition, 133(9), 3011S-20S.
A proposed nutrient composition for fortified processed complementary foods (FPCF) is developed based on the other papers in this publication, which consider a number of factors such as age range, daily ration size, recommended nutrient requirements, contribution of human milk to these requirements, macronutrient interactions, compound bioavailability, methods of production and overage. The proposed fortification levels are based on a daily ration size of 40 g for infants aged 6-12 mo and 60 g for children aged 12-23 mo. A desired protein-energy ratio of 6-10% is used to estimate energy from protein. The desired percentage of energy from lipid is estimated at 24% for infants aged 6-11 mo and 28% for children aged 12-23 mo, with the remaining energy to be supplied from carbohydrate. An FPCF should provide a quantity of iron sufficient to meet the Recommended Dietary Allowance in the form of dried ferrous sulfate of small particle size. Ascorbic acid, 70-140 mg for infants aged 6-11 mo and 50-100 mg for children aged 12-23 mo, will enhance iron absorption. Because of the lower bioavailability of zinc in cereal-based diets in developing countries, 4-5 mg of zinc in the form of zinc oxide is recommended. Proposed fortification levels are also provided for copper, calcium, vitamin D, magnesium, phosphorus, vitamin A, the B vitamins and iodine. To prevent micronutrient losses, it is recommended that the FPCF be precooked. The knowledge base to develop an FPCF is quite limited, and much additional research is needed before an optimal formulation can be recommended.