PURPOSE: To determine the prevalence and psychosocial correlates of depressive symptoms among adolescents and adults with Klinefelter syndrome.
METHODS: Individuals (n = 310) aged 14-75 years with self-reported Klinefelter syndrome were recruited from regional and national support networks to complete a web-based survey. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Perceived consequences (Illness Perceptions Questionnaire), perceived stigma (Perceived Social Stigmatization Scale), and coping (Ways of Coping Checklist-Revised) were also measured and evaluated as correlates of depressive symptoms.
RESULTS: Overall, 68.8% of the study participants reported clinically significant levels of depressive symptoms as indicated by a Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale score ≥16. The use of emotion-focused coping strategies (P < 0.01), perceptions of stigmatization (P < 0.01), perceived negative consequences of Klinefelter syndrome (P < 0.01), and the importance of having children in the future (P < 0.05) were all significantly associated with depressive symptoms.
CONCLUSIONS: Individuals with Klinefelter syndrome may be at increased risk for depression. Routine screening for depressive symptoms and appropriate referral and evaluation may be warranted.