Prevalence and incidence of androgen deficiency in middle-aged and older men: estimates from the Massachusetts Male Aging Study
Araujo, A. B., O'Donnell, A. B., Brambilla, D., Simpson, W. B., Longcope, C., Matsumoto, A. M., & McKinlay, J. B. (2004). Prevalence and incidence of androgen deficiency in middle-aged and older men: estimates from the Massachusetts Male Aging Study. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 89(12), 5920-5926.
Little is known about the descriptive epidemiology of androgen deficiency. In this study, we sought to address this issue by providing estimates of the crude and age-specific prevalence and incidence rates of androgen deficiency in a randomly sampled population-based cohort of middle-aged and older men. Data on androgen deficiency (defined using both signs/symptoms plus total and calculated free testosterone) were available for n = 1691 (baseline) and n = 1087 (follow-up) men from the Massachusetts Male Aging Study. Crude and age-specific prevalence and incidence rates were calculated. Based on these estimates, projections for the number of cases of androgen deficiency in the 40- to 69-yr-old U.S. male population were computed. Estimates of the crude prevalence of androgen deficiency at baseline and follow-up were 6.0 and 12.3%, respectively. Prevalence increased significantly with age. From baseline age-specific prevalence data, it is estimated that there are approximately 2.4 million 40- to 69-yr-old U.S. males with androgen deficiency. The crude incidence rate of androgen deficiency was 12.3 per 1,000 person-years, and the rate increased significantly (P < 0.0001) with age. Based on these incidence data, we can expect approximately 481,000 new cases of androgen deficiency per year in U.S. men 40-69 yr old