Prevalence and correlates of erectile dysfunction by race and ethnicity among men aged 40 or older in the United States: From the Male Attitudes Regarding Sexual Health survey
Introduction.? Most U.S. population-based estimates of erectile dysfunction (ED) prevalence restricted upper age, were not nationally representative, or underrepresented minority groups.
Aim.? To estimate, by race/ethnicity in the United States, the prevalence of ED and the impact of sociodemographic, health, relationship, psychological, and lifestyle variables.
Methods.? This cross-sectional, population-based, nationally representative probability survey conducted between May 2001 and January 2002 in the general community setting facilitated equivalent representation among U.S. non-Hispanic white (N = 901), non-Hispanic black (N = 596), and Hispanic (N = 676) men aged 40 and older by using targeted phone lists to oversample the minority populations.
Main Outcome Measure.? Estimated prevalence of moderate or severe ED, defined as a response of “sometimes” or “never” to the question “How would you describe your ability to get and keep an erection adequate for satisfactory intercourse?”
Results.? The estimated prevalence was 22.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 19.4–24.6) overall, 21.9% (95% CI, 18.8–24.9) in whites, 24.4% (95% CI, 18.4–30.5) in blacks, and 19.9% (95% CI, 13.9–25.9) in Hispanics, and increased with increasing age. The odds ratio increased with increasing age. Probability also increased with diabetes, hypertension, and moderate or severe lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) overall; age ?70 years and diabetes in whites; severe LUTS in blacks; and age ?60 years, moderate LUTS, hypertension, and depression in Hispanics. It decreased with exercise and college vs. less than high school education overall; with exercise, good relationship quality, and according to alcohol intake in blacks; and with high school or college education in Hispanics.
Conclusions.? The odds of ED increased with increasing age across race/ethnicity when controlling for sociodemographic, health, relationship, psychological, and lifestyle variables. These initial analyses suggest further study of the interrelationships among risk factors for ED.