Background Prenatal substance use screening is recommended. The 4 P’s Plus screener includes questions on perceived problematic substance use in parents and partner that are not considered in risk stratification. Objectives This research examined the: (1) prevalence of self-reported problematic parental and partner substance use and associations with biochemically-verified prenatal substance use; (2) utility of self-reported perceptions of parent/partner substance use as proxies for prenatal substance use; and (3) degree to which the sensitivity of the 4P’s Plus can be augmented with consideration of parent/partner questions in risk stratification. Methods A convenience sample of 500 pregnant women was recruited between January 2017 and January 2018. Participants completed the 4P’s Plus and provided urine for drug testing. Diagnostic utility of problematic parent/partner substance use questions was assessed, then compared to the 4P’s Plus used as designed, and to the 4P’s Plus used with these 2 questions included in risk stratification. Results Half (51%) of respondents reported either partner or parental problematic substance use. When partner or parent problematic substance use were considered as proxies for prenatal substance use, sensitivity was 65% and specificity was 55%. When used as intended, sensitivity was 94% and specificity was 29%. Including partner/parent questions increased sensitivity to 96% but lowered specificity (19%). Partner substance use and combined partner/parent use were associated with prenatal substance use [adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 2.0 (1.2, 2.4; p = 0.006); aOR = 1.6 (1.1, 2.5, p = 0.04)]. Conclusions for Practice Sensitivity of the 4P’s Plus may improve with inclusion of self-reported problematic partner/parent substance use items in risk stratification.
Prenatal substance use and perceptions of parent and partner use using the 4P’s Plus screener