Prenatal cocaine exposure and small-for-gestational-age status: Effects on growth at 6 years of age
Objective: To evaluate the impact of prenatal cocaine exposure and small-for-gestational-age (SGA) status on childhood growth. Study design: Cocaine exposure was defined by history or meconium metabolites. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to examine cocaine exposure and SGA status on growth, while controlling for exposure to other drugs and alcohol use. Results: At birth cocaine-exposed infants (n = 364) had significantly lower growth parameters compared to non-exposed children (n = 771). At 6 years, weight was similar between exposed and unexposed children. SGA infants continued to be growth impaired. There was a significant interaction between prenatal cocaine exposure and SGA status at 6 years. The negative effects of cocaine on weight and height were greater among non-SGA than SGA children (432 vs. 280 gm, and 0.7 and 0.5 cm, respectively) while negative effects of SGA status on weight and height were larger in non-cocaine exposed compared to the exposed children (2.3 kg vs.1.6 kg and 2.2 and 1.0 cm). Conclusions: Children exposed to prenatal cocaine were similar in weight to non-exposed children at 6 years of age. Cocaine had an unexplained greater detrimental effect on non-SGA than SGA children. SGA status at birth has an independent detrimental effect on childhood growth. (C) 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved
Shankaran, S., Das, A., Bauer, CR., Bada, HS., Lester, BM., Wright, LL., ... Poole, W. (2011). Prenatal cocaine exposure and small-for-gestational-age status: Effects on growth at 6 years of age. Neurotoxicology and Teratology, 33(5), 575-581.