Potent regulation of microglia-derived oxidative stress and dopaminergic neuron survival: substance P vs. dynorphin
Unregulated microglial activation has been implicated as a pivotal factor contributing to Parkinson's disease. Using mesencephalic neuron-glia cultures, we address the novel possibility that peptides endogenous to the substantia nigra (SN), substance P and dynorphin (10(-13)-10(-14) M), are opposing mediators of microglial activation and consequent DA neurotoxicity. Here, we identify that substance P (10(-13)-10(-14) M) is selectively toxic to DA neurons in a microglia-dependent manner. Mechanistically, substance P (10(-13)-10(-14) M) activated microglial NADPH oxidase to produce extracellular superoxide and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). Neuron-glia cultures from mice lacking a functional NADPH oxidase complex (PHOX-/-) were insensitive to substance P (10(-13)-10(-14) M) -induced loss of DA neuron function. Mixed glia cultures from (PHOX-/-) mice failed to show a significant increase in intracellular ROS in response to substance P compared with control cultures (PHOX+/+). Further, dynorphin (10(-14) M) inhibited substance P (10(-13) M) -induced loss of [3H] DA uptake. Here we demonstrate a tightly regulated mechanism governing microglia-derived oxidative stress, where the neuropeptide balance of dynorphin and substance P is critical to DA neuron survival
Block, M. L., Li, G., Qin, L., Wu, X., Pei, Z., Wang, T., ... Hong, J. S. (2006). Potent regulation of microglia-derived oxidative stress and dopaminergic neuron survival: substance P vs. dynorphin. FASEB Journal, 20(2), 251-258.