Plasma nutrient biomarkers are associated with waist-to-height ratio in youth with type 1 diabetes
BACKGROUND: Plasma fatty acids (FAs) and micronutrients have been associated with central obesity in adults; however, previous studies of these associations in adults have yielded mixed results. In addition, no comparable research has been conducted among youth with type 1 diabetes (T1D).
OBJECTIVE: We investigated the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between plasma nutrient biomarkers and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) in youth with T1D.
METHODS: These analyses included 1324 youth aged 3-20 y at T1D diagnosis with a baseline visit in the SEARCH (Search for Diabetes in Youth) Study and a subset of 1178 of these youth with a follow-up visit an average of 23 mo (range: 16-40 mo) after their baseline visit. Plasma phospholipid FAs and vitamins were measured, and estimated desaturase activities were calculated at baseline. Anthropometric measurements and diabetes-related assessments were collected at each visit. Multiple linear regression was used to examine the association between plasma nutrient biomarkers and WHtR.
RESULTS: In cross-sectional analysis, plasma palmitic acid (P = 0.004), dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (DGLA; P = 0.017) and Δ6 desaturase (D6D; P = 0.006) were positively correlated with WHtR after adjustment of confounders. Oleic acid (OA; P = 0.002), linoleic acid (LA; P = 0.015), Δ9 desaturase 18 (D9D-18; P = 0.027), and vitamin D (P < 0.0001) were negatively correlated with WHtR after adjustment. Weight status was an effect modifier (P < 0.05). In normal-weight youth, vitamin D (P = 0.003) was negatively associated with WHtR. In obese youth, stearic acid (P = 0.037), DGLA (P < 0.0001), and D6D (P < 0.0001) were positively associated and OA (P = 0.0008), D9D-18 (P = 0.0006), and vitamin D (P < 0.0001) were negatively associated with WHtR. In longitudinal analysis, baseline linoleic acid (P = 0.018), n-6:n-3 (ω-3:ω-6) FA ratio (P = 0.029), vitamin D (P = 0.003), and vitamin E (P < 0.0001) were negatively correlated with WHtR at follow-up only in obese participants.
CONCLUSIONS: In T1D youth, plasma FAs and vitamins are associated with WHtR and are modified by weight status. These associations are particularly marked in obese youth.
Wang, S., Crandell, J. L., Couch, S. C., King, I. B., Lawrence, J. M., Dabelea, D., ... Mayer-Davis, E. J. (2015). Plasma nutrient biomarkers are associated with waist-to-height ratio in youth with type 1 diabetes. Journal of Nutrition, 145(3), 579-586. DOI: 10.3945/jn.114.203133