Phytochemicals for the prevention of breast and endometrial cancer
Although there is evidence that phytochemicals decrease the incidence of breast and endometrial cancer, many observations are only phenomenologic, and much work needs to be done to explore basic mechanisms and the strategic exploitation of their interactions. The multiplicity of phytochemical actions at different sites in the process of tumorigenesis may eventually lead to the development of a multiagent strategy designed to maximize the complementary effects of different agents. A number of effects with possible relevance to cancer chemoprevention have been excluded from this review, including effects of phytochemicals on the immune response; the question of dietary restriction, which has a profound effect on tumorigenesis; the relatively low methionine levels in some phytochemicals such as soy, which may limit the synthesis of polyamines necessary for tumor growth ; and the fact that diets higher in plant products are usually lower in fat and result in leaner individuals with less potential for the synthesis of estradiol in adipose tissue. Also, many studies dealing solely with in vitro mutagenesis were excluded
Cline, JM., & Hughes, C. (1998). Phytochemicals for the prevention of breast and endometrial cancer. Cancer Treatment and Research, 94:107-34., 107-134.