Background: Most GISTs have mutations in KIT or PDGFRA. Patients with advanced GIST with KIT exon 9, PDGFRA mutation or WT for KIT and PDGFRA have a worse progression-free survival (PFS) compared to patients with KIT exon 11 mutated tumors. We evaluated the immunohistochemical (IHC) expression of p-IGF1R (Y1316) and MMP3 as predictors of PFS or overall survival (OS).
Methods: Ninety-two advanced GIST patients included in GEIS-16 study with KIT and PDGFRA mutational information were examined for p-IGF1R (Y1316) and MMP3 expression in a tissue micro-array. To study activation of the IGF1R system, we have used an antibody (anti-pY1316) that specifically recognizes the active phosphorylated form of the IGF1R. DNA was extracted from paraffin-embedded tissues and intronic PCR primers were used to amplify exons 9, 11, 13 and 17 of KIT, 12 and 18 of PDGFRA. Bidirectional sequencing with specific primers was performed on a ABI3100 sequencer using the Big Dye Terminator v3.1 kit. Multivariate model was built using a stepwise automated variable selection approach with criterion to enter the variable in the model of p < 0.10 and criterion to keep the variable in the model of p < 0.05. PFS was computed as the date of imatinib initiation to progression or death. Overall survival was defined as the time from imatinib initiation to death.
Results: Phospho-IGF1R was expressed only in 9 % (2/22) of cases without KIT mutation. MMP3 expression was detected in 2/5 patients (40 %) with PDGFRA mutation, 1/16 patients (6 %) with WT genotype and 7/71 patients (10 %) of KIT mutant patients. At univariate analysis KIT exon 11/13 mutation had better PFS than patients with exon 9 mutation, PDGFRA mutation or WT genotype (p = 0.021; HR: 0.46; 95 % CI (0.28-0.76). Less than 24 months disease free-interval (HR 24.2, 95 % CI 10.5-55.8), poor performance status (PS) (HR 6.3, 95 % CI 2.5-15.9), extension of disease; > 1 organ (HR 1.89; 95 % CI 1.03-3.4) and genotype analysis (HR 0.57, 95 % CI 0.37-0.97) but not immunophenotype analysis (HR 1.53; 95 % CI 0.76-3.06) were the strongest prognostic factors for PFS in the multivariate analysis.
Conclusions: Our results do not support p-IGF-1R and MMP3 evaluation in non-selected GIST patients but evaluation of this immunophenotype in WT and mutant PDGFR mutation in larger group of GIST patients, deserve merits.