• Journal Article

Phase 1 Safety, Pharmacokinetics, and Pharmacodynamics of Dapivirine and Maraviroc Vaginal Rings: a Double-Blind Randomized Trial

Citation

Chen, B. A., Panther, L., Marzinke, M. A., Hendrix, C. W., Hoesley, C. J., Van Der Straten, A., ... Dezzutti, C. S. (2015). Phase 1 Safety, Pharmacokinetics, and Pharmacodynamics of Dapivirine and Maraviroc Vaginal Rings: a Double-Blind Randomized Trial. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 70(3), 242-249. DOI: 10.1097/QAI.0000000000000702

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Variable adherence limits effectiveness of daily oral and intravaginal tenofovir-containing pre-exposure prophylaxis. Monthly vaginal antiretroviral rings are one approach to improve adherence and drug delivery. METHODS: MTN-013/IPM 026, a multi-site, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial in 48 HIV-negative U.S. women, evaluated vaginal rings containing dapivirine (25 mg) and maraviroc (100 mg), dapivirine-only, maraviroc-only, and placebo used continuously for 28 days. Safety was assessed by adverse events. Drug concentrations were quantified in plasma, cervicovaginal fluid (CVF), and cervical tissue. Cervical biopsy explants were challenged with HIV ex vivo to evaluate pharmacodynamics. RESULTS: There was no difference in related genitourinary adverse events between treatment arms compared to placebo. Dapivirine and maraviroc concentrations rose higher initially before falling more rapidly with the combination ring compared to relatively stable concentrations with the single drug rings. Dapivirine concentrations in CVF were 1 and 5 log10 greater than cervical tissue and plasma for both rings. Maraviroc was consistently detected only in CVF. Dapivirine and maraviroc CVF and dapivirine tissue concentrations dropped rapidly after ring removal. Cervical tissue showed a significant inverse linear relationship between HIV replication and dapivirine levels. CONCLUSIONS: In this first study of a combination microbicide vaginal ring, all four rings were safe and well tolerated. Tissue dapivirine concentrations were 1,000 times greater than plasma concentrations and single drug rings had more stable pharmacokinetics. Dapivirine, but not maraviroc, demonstrated concentration-dependent inhibition of HIV-1 infection in cervical tissue. Since maraviroc concentrations were consistently detectable only in CVF and not in plasma, improved drug release of maraviroc rings is needed. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01363037