Pharmacokinetics of sequential doses of capreomycin powder for inhalation in guinea pigs
The global control of tuberculosis (TB) is at risk by the spread of multidrug-resistant TB (MDR TB). Treatment of MDR TB is lengthy and involves injected drugs, such as capreomycin, that have severe side effects. It was previously reported that a single daily dose of inhaled capreomycin had a positive effect on the bacterial burden of TB-infected guinea pigs. The modest effect observed was possibly due to a dose that resulted in insufficient time of exposure to therapeutic systemic and local levels of the drug. In order to determine the length of time that systemic and local drug concentrations are above therapeutic levels during the treatment period, the present study investigated the disposition of capreomycin powders after sequential pulmonary administration of doses of 20 mg/kg of body weight. Capreomycin concentrations in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung tissue of animals receiving a series of one, two, or three doses of capreomycin inhalable powder were significantly higher (50- to 100-fold) at all time points than plasma concentrations at the same time points or those observed in animals receiving capreomycin solution by intramuscular (i.m.) injection (10- to 100-fold higher). Notably, at the end of each dosing period, capreomycin concentrations in the lungs were approximately 100-fold higher than those in plasma and severalfold higher than the MIC, suggesting that sufficient capreomycin remains in the lung environment to kill Mycobacterium tuberculosis. No accumulation of capreomycin powder was detected in the lungs after 3 pulmonary doses. These results indicate that the systemic disposition of capreomycin after inhalation is the same as when injected i.m. with the advantage that higher drug concentrations are present at all times in the lungs, the primary site of infection.