Person-Directed Care Planning in Nursing Homes: Resident, Family, and Staff Perspectives
Empowering individuals to direct their own care is central to person-centered care and health care policy. However, there is limited knowledge of how “person-directed care planning” (PDCP) can be achieved in particular settings. This study identifies key structures and processes for operationalizing and implementing PDCP in nursing homes. Using participatory inquiry, we convened “stakeholder engagement sessions” with residents, families, nursing staff, and managers/administrators in two North Carolina nursing homes (N = 24 sessions; N = 67 unique participants). Stakeholders discussed current care-planning processes and provided feedback on an emergent conceptual framework of PDCP. Three themes emerged through directed-content analysis: strategies included providing formal and informal opportunities to engage in care planning and ensuring effective follow-through; different roles were required among leadership, staff, residents, and families to accomplish PDCP; and limits on achieving PDCP included competing priorities and perceived regulatory and resource constraints. Results are discussed in terms of the specific competencies required for accomplishing PDCP.