AIM: Federal regulations require nursing homes in the United States to support residents in directing their own care rather than having their care plans developed for them without their engagement, but knowledge of person-directed approaches to care planning in nursing homes is limited. The purpose of this study was to advance understanding of person-directed care planning (PDCP).
METHODS: A multidisciplinary research team conducted a scoping review on individual and family involvement in care planning, including literature from a variety of care contexts. Search results were systematically screened to identify literature that addressed individual or family involvement in care planning as a primary concern, and then analysed using thematic content analysis.
RESULTS: Several themes were identified, including definitions of the concept of PDCP, essential elements of PDCP, barriers, facilitators and outcomes. The concept of PDCP is informed by multiple disciplines, including humanist philosophy, disability rights and end-of-life care. Essential elements of PDCP include knowing the person, integrating the person's goals in care planning and updating care plans as individuals' needs or preferences change. Limited time for care planning in nursing homes hinders PDCP. Facilitators include regulatory mandates and humanist social trends. Outcomes of PDCP were found to be positive (e.g., increased independence), but were inconsistently assessed across studies.
CONCLUSION: This study offers pragmatic information that can support PDCP within nursing homes and insights for policy reform that may more effectively support PDCP.
IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: These findings can be used to guide implementation of PDCP.