INTRODUCTION: This study evaluates the effect of program and incentive characteristics on satisfaction with incentives and perceived impact of incentives on behavior change among Medicaid beneficiaries who participated in the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services Medicaid Incentives for Prevention of Chronic Diseases program.
METHODS: In 2014-2015, an English- and Spanish-language survey was administered to Medicaid Incentives for Prevention of Chronic Diseases program participants about their satisfaction with incentives and perceived impact of incentives. Completed surveys were received from 2,276 eligible sample members (response rate=52.7%). In 2016-2017, multilevel, multivariable, ordinal logistic regression models were performed to examine program characteristics that predict outcomes, while controlling for respondent characteristics.
RESULTS: Medicaid Incentives for Prevention of Chronic Diseases participants were satisfied with program incentives. Most survey respondents strongly agreed that they liked getting incentives for taking care of their health (78%), they were happy with the incentives overall (75%), the incentives were fair (73%), and they liked how often they received incentives (67%). Participants in programs delivered by telephone reported higher satisfaction with incentives compared with those in programs delivered in person. However, participants in programs delivered both in person and by telephone were more likely to perceive a positive impact of incentives. Incentive form was a significant predictor of satisfaction with incentives but not of incentive impact. Dollar amount of incentives influenced satisfaction with incentives and impact of incentives.
CONCLUSIONS: Program delivery method, incentive form, and incentive magnitude are important characteristics to consider when designing incentive programs. Incentive programs can consider providing modest incentive amounts to achieve self-reported impact on behavior change.