Paucity of HPV-related head and neck cancers (HNC) in Nigeria
Oga, E. A., Schumaker, L. M., Alabi, B. S., Obaseki, D., Umana, A., Bassey, I-A., Ebughe, G., Oluwole, O., Akeredolu, T., & Adebamowo, S. N. (2016). Paucity of HPV-related head and neck cancers (HNC) in Nigeria. PLoS One, 11(4).
INTRODUCTION: The burden of HPV-related Head and Neck Cancers (HNC) has been rising in the U.S. and other developed countries but this trend has not been reported in Africa. Objective of study was to evaluate the prevalence of HPV infection in HNC cancer cases seen between 1990 and 2011 at the tertiary health care institutions in Nigeria.
METHODS: We retrieved 149 head and neck cancer formalin fixed, paraffin embedded tumor specimens diagnosed between 1990 and 2011 from four teaching hospitals in Nigeria. One hundred and twenty-three blocks (83%) contained appropriate HNC for analysis while DNA extraction was successful in 60% (90/149). PCR amplification was successful in 33% (49/149) and Linear Array genotyping for HPV was successful in 11% (17/149) of these cases. These were in tumors from the larynx (6), cervical lymph nodes (3), nasal cavity (2), parotid (1), palate (1), maxillary sinus (1) and mandible (1). Two cases were non-specific and none were from the oropharynx. Histologically, 41% (7/17) of the successfully genotyped blocks were squamous cell carcinomas (larynx 6, maxillary sinus 1).
RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: We were unable to detect HPV in any of the HNC samples in our study. Our result may suggest that there is a low prevalence of HPV-related HNC among the adult population in Nigeria. Our results provide a benchmark to compare future incidence of HPV -related HNC in this community in future. We had significant analytical challenges from possible poor tissue processing and urge that future studies should prospectively collect samples and ensure high quality sample processing.