Outcome of extremely-low-birth-weight infants at highest risk: Gestational age
Shankaran, S., Johnson, Y., Langer, J., Vohr, B. R., Fanaroff, A. A., Wright, L. L., & Poole, W. (2004). Outcome of extremely-low-birth-weight infants at highest risk: Gestational age. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 191(4), 1084-1091.
Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate neurodevelopmental outcome in extremely-low-birth-weight (ELBW) infants, all of whom had 3 characteristics: gestational age (GA) less than or equal to24 weeks, birth weight less than or equal to750 g, and 1-minute Apgar score less than or equal to3. Study design: Surviving infants were evaluated at 18 to 22 months' corrected age with a neurologic examination and the Bayley II Mental and Psychomotor Developmental Index (MDI and PDI). Results: Between 1993 and 1999, 1016 infants had GA less than or equal to24 weeks, birth weight less than or equal to750 g, and I-minute Apgar score less than or equal to3. Of 246 survivors, 30% had cerebral palsy (CP), 5% had hearing impairment, and 2% were blind. MDI was greater than or equal to85 in 33% and <70 in 46% of infants, while PDI was greater than or equal to85 in 41% and <70 in 36% infants. Predictors of MDI <70 were grade III-IV ICH, cystic periventricular leukomalacia (PVL), male gender, black race, and Medicaid insurance. Two-parent household was associated with an MDI >70. Predictors of PDI <70 were grade III-IV ICH, PVL, steroids for bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), and Medicaid insurance. CP was associated with grade III-IV ICH and PVL. Conclusion: Perinatologists and neonatologists should be aware of the risk of morbidity and mortality in this high-risk ELBW group. (C) 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved