Non-occupational exposures to pesticides for residents of two U.S. cities
Whitmore, R., Immerman, F., Camann, D. E., Bond, A. E., Lewis, R. G., & Schaum, J. L. (1994). Non-occupational exposures to pesticides for residents of two U.S. cities. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 26(1), 47-59.
The Non-Occupational Pesticide Exposure Study, funded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, was designed to assess total human exposures to 32 pesticides and pesticide degradation products in the non-occupational environment; however, the study focused primarily on inhalation exposures. Two sites—Jacksonville, Florida (USA) and Springfield/Chicopee, Massachusetts (USA)—were studied during three seasons: Summer 1986 (Jacksonville only), Spring 1987, and Winter 1988. Probability samples of 49 to 72 persons participated in individual site/seasons. The primary environmental monitoring consisted of 24-hr indoor, personal, and outdoor air samples analyzed by gas chromtography/mass spectrometry and gas chromatography/electron capture detection. Indoor and personal air concentrations tended to be higher in Jacksonville than in Springfield/Chicopee. Concentrations tended to be highest in summer, lower in spring, and lowest in winter. Indoor and personal air concentrations were generally comparable and were usually much higher than outdoor air concentrations. Inhalation exposure exceeded dietary exposure for cyclodiene termiticides and for pesticides used mainly in the home. Dietary exposures were greater for many of the other pesticides. Inhalation risks were uncertain for termiticides (depending on rates of degradation) but were negligible for other pesticides. The data were insufficient to support risk assessments for food, dermal contact, or house dust exposures.