• Article

A multiple motives approach to tobacco dependence: The Wisconsin Inventory of Smoking Dependence Motives (WISDM-68)

The dependence construct fills an important explanatory role in motivational accounts of smoking and relapse. Frequently used measures of dependence are either atheoretical or grounded in a unidimensional model of physical dependence. This research creates a multidimensional measure of dependence that is based on theoretically grounded motives for drug use and is intended to reflect mechanisms underlying dependence. Data collected front a large sample of smokers (N = 775) indicated that all 13 subscales of the Wisconsin Inventory of Smoking Dependence Motives (WISDM-68) have acceptable internal consistency, are differentially present across levels of smoking heaviness, and have a multidimensional structure. Validity analyses indicated the WISDM-68 subscales are significantly related to dependence criteria such as smoking heaviness and to 4th edition Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders symptoms of dependence and relapse

Citation

Piper, ME., Piasecki, TM., Federman, E., Bolt, DM., Smith, SS., Fiore, MC., & Baker, TB. (2004). A multiple motives approach to tobacco dependence: The Wisconsin Inventory of Smoking Dependence Motives (WISDM-68). Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 72(2), 139-154.