• Journal Article

Mother-infant interactions in free-ranging rhesus macaques: Relationships between physiological and behavioral variables

Citation

Maestripieri, D., Hoffman, C. L., Anderson, G. M., Carter Porges, C., & Higley, J. D. (2009). Mother-infant interactions in free-ranging rhesus macaques: Relationships between physiological and behavioral variables. Physiology & Behavior, 96(4-5), 613-619. DOI: 10.1016/j.physbeh.2008.12.016

Abstract

Studies of mother-infant relationships in nonhuman primates have increasingly attempted to understand the neuroendocrine bases of interindividual variation in mothering styles and the mechanisms through which early exposure to variable mothering styles affects infant behavioral development. In this study of free-ranging rhesus macaques on Cayo Santiago, Puerto Rico, we aimed to: 1) compare lactating and nonlactating females to investigate whether lactation is associated with changes in plasma cortisol, prolactin and oxytocin, as well as changes in CSF levels of serotonin and dopamine metabolites (5-HIAA and HVA); 2) examine the extent to which interindividual variation in maternal physiology is associated with variation in maternal behavior; 3) examine the extent to which interindividual variation in infant physiology and behavior is accounted for by variation in maternal physiology and behavior. Lactating females had higher plasma concentrations of cortisol, prolactin, and oxytocin but lower CSF concentrations of HVA than nonlactating females. Variation in maternal rejection behavior was positively correlated with variation in maternal plasma cortisol levels and in CSF 5-HIAA levels while variation in the time spent nursing and grooming was associated with maternal plasma oxytocin levels. Infants who were protected more by their mothers had higher cortisol levels than those who were protected less, while infants who were rejected more had lower CSF 5-HIAA than infants who were rejected less. Since exposure to high levels of maternal protectiveness and rejection is known to affect the offspring's behavior and responsiveness to the environment later in life, our results are consistent with the hypothesis that these effects are mediated by long-term changes in the activity of the offspring's HPA axis and brain serotonergic system. (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved