Molecular dosimetry of ethylene oxide: formation and persistence of 7-(2-hydroxyethyl)guanine in DNA following repeated exposures of rats and mice
The formation of 7-(2-hydroxyethyl)guanine (7-HEG) in DNA of target and nontarget tissues was investigated in male B6C3F1 mice (20/group) and F344 rats (10/group) exposed to 0, 3, 10, 33, 100, or 300 (rats only) ppm ethylene oxide (ETO) by inhalation for 6 h/day for 4 weeks (5 days/week) and mice exposed to 100 ppm ETO for 1 or 3 days or 1, 2, or 4 weeks (5 days/week). The persistence of 7-HEG was studied in mice killed up to 7 days after cessation of the 4-week time-course study. In addition, the formation of O6-(2-hydroxyethyl)guanine and 3-(2-hydroxyethyl)adenine was evaluated in rats exposed to 300 ppm ETO. DNA samples from control and treated animals were analyzed for 7-HEG using neutral thermal hydrolysis, microconcentration, and high-performance liquid chromatography separation with fluorescence detection. Fluorescence-linked high-performance liquid chromatography was used for O6-(2-hydroxyethyl)guanine quantitation, and immunochromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were used for 3-(2-hydroxyethyl)adenine detection. Analysis of DNA from tissues of control mice and rats revealed the presence of peaks equivalent to 2-6 pmol 7-HEG/mg DNA. In mice exposed to 100 ppm ETO, 7-HEG accumulated to a similar extent in target and nontarget tissues, with adduct concentrations ranging from 17.5 +/- 3.0 (SE) (testis) to 32.9 +/- 1.9 (lung) pmol adduct/mg DNA after 4 weeks of exposure. Concurrent exposures of mice and rats to 100 ppm ETO for 4 weeks led to 2- to 3-fold lower concentrations of 7-HEG in mouse DNA in all tissues compared to rat DNA. 7-HEG disappeared slowly in a nearly linear fashion from the DNA of mouse kidney (t1/2 = 6.9 days) and rat brain and lung (t1/2 = 5.4-5.8 days), which was consistent with the loss of adduct mainly by chemical depurination. In contrast, a more rapid removal of 7-HEG from other mouse (t1/2 = 1.0-2.3 days) and rat (t1/2 = 2.9-4.8 days) tissues was consistent with adduct loss by depurination and DNA repair. Dose-response relationships for 7-HEG were nonlinear in both mice and rats, with the alkylating efficiency of ETO increasing at high exposures.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
Walker, V. E., Fennell, T., Upton, P. B., Skopek, T. R., Prevost, V., Shuker, D. E., & Swenberg, J. A. (1992). Molecular dosimetry of ethylene oxide: formation and persistence of 7-(2-hydroxyethyl)guanine in DNA following repeated exposures of rats and mice. Cancer Research, 52(16), 4328-4334.