Modification of DNA topoisomerase II activity via direct interactions with the cyclic adenosine-3',5'-monophosphate response element-binding protein and related transcription factors
Kroll, D., Sullivan, D. M., Gutierrez-Hartmann, A., & Hoeffler, J. P. (1993). Modification of DNA topoisomerase II activity via direct interactions with the cyclic adenosine-3',5'-monophosphate response element-binding protein and related transcription factors. Molecular Endocrinology, 7(3), 305-318.
DNA topoisomerase II (topo II) is an essential nuclear enzyme which catalyzes the interconversions of various forms of DNA. As predicted from the human topo II cDNA, the enzyme contains a potential leucine zipper protein dimerization motif. We therefore tested whether topo II could enter protein-protein interactions with other better characterized leucine zipper-containing proteins and determined if these interactions could modify topo II enzymatic activity in vitro. By far Western analyses, a large C-terminal fragment of human topo II was shown to interact with the DNA binding and dimerization regions of either cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) or the activating transcription factor-2. The C-terminal topo II fragment also interacted with full-length c-Jun, but not with full-length c-Fos. Using CREB as a prototype, the effect of this interaction on various topo II catalytic activities was assessed in vitro. CREB, at a 1- to 10-fold molar excess relative to topo II, inhibited site-specific DNA cleavage activity on a 242-base pair fragment of the human alpha-glycoprotein hormone subunit gene promoter. Very high CREB concentrations (400-fold excess) apparently inhibited topo II DNA relaxation activity, but this result was likely a direct effect of CREB on the topology of the DNA substrate. More interestingly, a 10-fold molar excess of CREB stimulated topo II decatenation activity, the essential function of this enzyme in cell division. This stimulatory effect could also be elicited by c-Jun, which interacts with topo II, but not by c-Fos, which does not bind topo II in our in vitro assay. Since similar amounts of CREB reduced the abundance of topo II DNA cleavage products from the human alpha-CG promoter yet also stimulated decatenation activity, it can be concluded that either: 1) CREB stimulated the religation rate of topo II; or 2) CREB directed topo II to a new cleavage site present on the decatenation substrate but not present on the limited alpha-CG promoter. The structural requirements for topo II protein-protein interactions were also investigated. Site-directed mutations which destroyed the putative topo II leucine zipper did not disrupt topo II protein-protein interactions. Since the putative leucine zipper in topo II does not appear to mediate protein-protein interactions, we propose that an alternate as yet uncharacterized structure is involved in the association of topo II with itself and other regulatory proteins.