Modeling psychological empowerment among youth involved in local tobacco control efforts
Holden, D., Evans, W., Hinnant, L., & Messeri, P. (2005). Modeling psychological empowerment among youth involved in local tobacco control efforts. Health Education and Behavior, 32(2), 264-278.
The American Legacy Foundation funded 13 state health departments for their Statewide Youth Movement Against Tobacco Use in September 2000. Its goal was to create statewide tobacco control initiatives implemented with youth leadership. The underlying theory behind these initiatives was that tobacco control efforts can best be accomplished by empowering youth. To evaluate these initiatives, the authors developed a conceptual framework for youth empowerment that was used as a guide in developing standardized cross-site measures. This article describes the domains and attributes used to operationalize psychological empowerment as an outcome of youth involvement in these initiatives and presents results of our two-stage structural equation modeling. We conclude with a summary of lessons learned to date and recommendations for applying these findings to work in the field