A model for the formation and removal of hemoglobin adducts
Hemoglobin adducts formed by chemical carcinogens can be used as biomarkers of exposure. The kinetics of adduct formation and removal is complex and depends on the processes involved in erythrocyte removal, adduct stability, and the duration and extent of exposure. In order to relate the formation of adducts to the extent of exposure in complex exposure scenarios, a model has been developed to describe the kinetics of accumulation and removal of adducts formed in vivo. The exposure scenario, lifetime of erythrocytes, and extent of adduct formation following a single exposure are required input parameters. Predictions of adduct accumulation have been generated for a wide variety of exposure scenarios and compared with both the solutions to equations derived for adduct formation and removal and experimental observations. Loss of adduct by removal of erythrocytes from circulation, both by senescence and random removal and as a result of chemical instability, has been simulated. Equations have been derived to describe the removal of hemoglobin adducts under conditions of exposure for less than the lifetime of the erythrocyte, when removal is initially a linear function of time. This model makes possible the comparison of data obtained from different exposure scenarios and in different species.