OBJECTIVE: To describe the calculation and psychometric properties of the discharge self-care functional status quality measure implemented in the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services' (CMS) Inpatient Rehabilitation Facility (IRF) Quality Reporting Program on October 1, 2016.
DESIGN: Medicare fee-for-service (FFS) patients from 38 IRFs that participated in the CMS Post-Acute Care Payment Reform Demonstration were included in this cohort study. Data came from the Continuity Assessment Record and Evaluation Item Set, IRF-Patient Assessment Instrument, and Medicare claims. For each patient, we calculated an expected discharge self-care score, risk-adjusted for demographic and baseline clinical characteristics. The performance score of each IRF equaled the percentage of patient stays where the observed discharge self-care score met or exceeded the expected score. We assessed the measure's discriminatory ability across IRFs and reliability.
PARTICIPANTS: Medicare FFS patients aged ≥21 years (N=4769).
INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Facility-level discharge self-care quality measure performance score.
RESULTS: A total of 4769 patient stays were included; 57% of stays were in women, and 12.1% were in patients aged <65 years. Stroke was the most common diagnosis (21.8%). The mean±SD performance score was 55.1%±16.6% (range, 25.8%-100%). About 54% of IRFs had scores significantly different from the percentage of stays that met or exceeded the expected discharge self-care score in the overall demonstration sample. The quality measure showed strong reliability, with intraclass correlation coefficients of .91.
CONCLUSIONS: The discharge self-care quality measure showed strong discriminatory ability and reliability, representing an important initial step in evaluation of IRF self-care outcomes. A wide range in performance scores suggested a gap in quality of care across IRFs. Future work should include testing the measure with nationwide data from all IRFs.