A mathematical model of stress generation and fracture in lithium manganese oxide
Fracture of LiyMn2O4 is predicted with a numerical model that calculates the stress generated in spherical particles due to lithium intercalation along the 4-V plateau and phase change along the 3-V plateau. In the former case, fracture is probable at the rates typical of high-power applications, while in the latter case, the probability of fracture is linked not to the discharge rate or particle size, but to the LiMn2O4/Li2Mn2O4 phase ratio. The two-phase material should fracture immediately upon lithium extraction. The effects of variation in thermodynamic factor, diffusion coefficient, and lattice parameter are examined in detail. (C) 2006 The Electrochemical Society
Christensen, J., & Newman, J. (2006). A mathematical model of stress generation and fracture in lithium manganese oxide. Journal of the Electrochemical Society, 153(6), A1019-A1030.