Maternal metabolites during pregnancy are associated with newborn outcomes and hyperinsulinaemia across ancestries
Kadakia, R., Nodzenski, M., Talbot, O., Kuang, A., Bain, J. R., Muehlbauer, M. J., Stevens, RD., Ilkayeva, OR., O'Neal, SK., Lowe, LP., Metzger, BE., Newgard, CB., Scholtens, DM., & Group, HAPO. S. C. R. (2018). Maternal metabolites during pregnancy are associated with newborn outcomes and hyperinsulinaemia across ancestries. Diabetologia, 62(3), 473-484. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00125-018-4781-1
Aims/hypothesisWe aimed to determine the association of maternal metabolites with newborn adiposity and hyperinsulinaemia in a multi-ethnic cohort of mother-newborn dyads.MethodsTargeted and non-targeted metabolomics assays were performed on fasting and 1h serum samples from a total of 1600 mothers in four ancestry groups (Northern European, Afro-Caribbean, Mexican American and Thai) who participated in the Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome (HAPO) study, underwent an OGTT at 28weeks gestation and whose newborns had anthropometric measurements at birth.ResultsIn this observational study, meta-analyses demonstrated significant associations of maternal fasting and 1h metabolites with birthweight, cord C-peptide and/or sum of skinfolds across ancestry groups. In particular, maternal fasting triacylglycerols were associated with newborn sum of skinfolds. At 1h, several amino acids, fatty acids and lipid metabolites were associated with one or more newborn outcomes. Network analyses revealed clusters of fasting acylcarnitines, amino acids, lipids and fatty acid metabolites associated with cord C-peptide and sum of skinfolds, with the addition of branched-chain and aromatic amino acids at 1h.Conclusions/interpretationThe maternal metabolome during pregnancy is associated with newborn outcomes. Maternal levels of amino acids, acylcarnitines, lipids and fatty acids and their metabolites during pregnancy relate to fetal growth, adiposity and cord C-peptide, independent of maternal BMI and blood glucose levels.