BACKGROUND: Epidemiological knowledge and predictors of melanoma among children and adolescents in multiethnic populations are limited.
PROCEDURE: Using data from the Texas Cancer Registry (TCR) and the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) 13 database, we identified incident melanoma cases diagnosed at 0-20 years old during 1995-2013 in Texas and the United States, respectively. Using negative binomial regression, associations between demographic factors and melanoma incidence rates (IR) were evaluated by calculating incidence rate ratios (IRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Annual percent change in IRs was assessed with joinpoint regression.
RESULTS: Overall, the melanoma IR was 4.16 (TCR, n = 634) and 4.84 (SEER, n = 1260) per million. Females, adolescents, non-Hispanic (NH) whites, and Hispanics had higher IRs compared with other groups (P < 0.05). In adjusted analyses, Hispanics had a higher incidence of melanoma than NH non-whites (Texas IRR = 2.17; 95% CI, 1.30-3.61; SEER IRR = 2.88; 95% CI, 1.97-4.21). In Texas, NH whites with melanoma were more likely to live in low poverty areas, whereas the opposite trend was observed in Hispanics. Melanoma IRs increased throughout 1995-2004 followed by an average annual decrease of 7.6% (95% CI, -12.6%, -2.2%) in Texas and 6.0% (95% CI, -8.5%, -3.4%) in SEER during 2005-2013 (P < 0.05). However, these decreasing trends were not observed among Hispanics or those <10 years old.
CONCLUSION: Although the overall melanoma IR in children and adolescents appears to be decreasing, this trend is not evident among Hispanics and young children, implicating the need for further research investigating the etiologies and risk factors in these groups.