• Journal Article

Low anticoagulant heparin targets multiple sites of inflammation, suppresses heparin-induced thrombocytopenia, and inhibits interaction of RAGE with its ligands

Citation

Rao, N. V., Argyle, B., Xu, X. Y., Reynolds, P. R., Walenga, J. M., Prechel, M., ... Kennedy, T. P. (2010). Low anticoagulant heparin targets multiple sites of inflammation, suppresses heparin-induced thrombocytopenia, and inhibits interaction of RAGE with its ligands. American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology, 299(1), C97-C110.

Abstract

Low anticoagulant heparin targets multiple sites of inflammation, suppresses heparin-induced thrombocytopenia, and inhibits interaction of RAGE with its ligands. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 299: C97-C110, 2010. First published April 7, 2010; doi:10.1152/ajpcell.00009.2010.-While heparin has been used almost exclusively as a blood anticoagulant, important literature demonstrates that it also has broad anti-inflammatory activity. Herein, using low anti-coagulant 2-O, 3-O-desulfated heparin (ODSH), we demonstrate that most of the anti-inflammatory pharmacology of heparin is unrelated to anticoagulant activity. ODSH has low affinity for anti-thrombin III, low anti-Xa, and anti-IIa anticoagulant activities and does not activate Hageman factor (factor XII). Unlike heparin, ODSH does not interact with heparin-platelet factor-4 antibodies present in patients with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia and even suppresses platelet activation in the presence of activating concentrations of heparin. Like heparin, ODSH inhibits complement activation, binding to the leukocyte adhesion molecule P-selectin, and the leukocyte cationic granular proteins azurocidin, human leukocyte elastase, and cathepsin G. In addition, ODSH and heparin disrupt Mac-1 (CD11b/CD18)-mediated leukocyte adhesion to the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) and inhibit ligation of RAGE by its many proinflammatory ligands, including the advanced glycation end-product carboxymethyl lysine-bovine serum albumin, the nuclear protein high mobility group box protein-1 (HMGB-1), and S100 calgranulins. In mice, ODSH is more effective than heparin in reducing selectin-mediated lung metastasis from melanoma and inhibits RAGE-mediated airway inflammation from intratracheal HMGB-1. In humans, 50% inhibitory concentrations of ODSH for these anti-inflammatory activities can be achieved in the blood without anticoagulation. These results demonstrate that the anticoagulant activity of heparin is distinct from its anti-inflammatory actions and indicate that 2-O and 3-O sulfate groups can be removed to reduce anticoagulant activity of heparin without impairing its anti-inflammatory pharmacology.