A three dimensional photonic crystal and layer-by-layer processes of fabricating the photonic crystal. A templated substrate is exposed to a plurality of first microspheres made of a first material, the first material being of a type that will bond to the templated substrate and form a self-passivated layer of first microspheres to produce a first layer. The first layer is exposed to a plurality of second microspheres made of a second material, the second material being of a type that will bond to the first layer and form a self-passivated layer of second microspheres. This layering of alternating first and second microspheres can be repeated as desired to build a three dimensional photonic crystal of desired geometry.
Layer-by-layer assembly of photonic crystals
Lewis, J., Goodwin-Johansson, SH., Stoner, B., Grego, S., & Dausch, D. (2004). IPC No. U.S. Layer-by-layer assembly of photonic crystals. (Patent No. 6752868).