The joint effects of neighborhoods, schools, peers, and families on changes in the school success of middle school students
Bowen, GL., Rose, RA., Powers, JD., & Glennie, E. (2008). The joint effects of neighborhoods, schools, peers, and families on changes in the school success of middle school students. Family Relations, 57(4), 504-516. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1741-3729.2008.00518.x
Longitudinal self-report data from 4,071 students are used to examine the degree to which students' perceptions of their social environments (people and places) are associated with changes in 3 school success outcomes: school engagement, trouble avoidance, and grades. Specific variable dimensions within the neighborhood, peer, and family domains had significant effects on one or more of these school outcomes. Implications of the findings for further research and intervention practice are discussed, including the availability of a Web-based resource for linking these findings with evidence-based intervention and prevention strategies.