The intersection of interpersonal and self-directed violence among general adult, college student and sexually diverse samples
Cramer, R. J., Desmarais, S. L., Johnson, K. L., Gemberling, T. M., Nobles, M. R., Holley, S. R., ... Van Dorn, R. (2017). The intersection of interpersonal and self-directed violence among general adult, college student and sexually diverse samples. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 63(1), 78-85. DOI: 10.1177/0020764016683728, 10.1177/0020764016683728
Background: Suicide and interpersonal violence (i.e. victimization and perpetration) represent pressing public health problems, and yet remain mostly addressed as separate topics.
Aims: To identify the (1) frequency and overlap of suicide and interpersonal violence and (2) characteristics differentiating subgroups of violence-related experiences.
Methods: A health survey was completed by 2,175 respondents comprised of three groups: college students (n=702), adult members of a sexuality special interest organization (n=816) and a community adult sample (n=657). Latent class analysis was used to identify subgroups characterized by violence experiences; logistic regression was used to identify respondent characteristics differentiating subgroups.
Results: Overall rates of violence perpetration were low; perpetration, victimization and self-directed violence all varied by sample. Adults with alternative sexual interests reported high rates of victimization and self-directed violence. Analyses indicated two subgroups: (1) victimization+self-directed violence and (2) self-directed violence only. The victimization+self-directed violence subgroup was characterized by older, White, female and sexual orientation minority persons. The self-directed violence subgroup was characterized by younger, non-White, male and straight counterparts engaging with more sexual partners and more frequent drug use.
Conclusion: Findings support the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) definition of suicide as self-directed violence. Suicide intervention and prevention should further account for the role of violent victimization by focusing on the joint conceptualization of self-directed and interpersonal violence. Additional prevention implications are discussed.