OBJECTIVES: Women with opioid use disorder (OUD) in the USA are at risk for poor reproductive and sexual health (RSH) outcomes. The qualitative research presented here is part of a larger mixed methods study. The qualitative component used an implementation science framework to investigate provider and staff perspectives regarding the integration of RSH education and services for reproductive-age women in opioid treatment programs (OTPs) in North Carolina.
METHODS: Thirty-one semistructured interviews were conducted with providers and staff at 9 OTPs between November and December, 2017. The Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR) was used to assess multilevel implementation contexts (eg, patient, provider, organizational) to identify barriers and facilitators that might influence effective intervention implementation. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, coded, and analyzed to identify key themes. Deductive and inductive approaches were used.
RESULTS: Barriers included transportation, childcare, and time constraints (patient-level), lack of communication between providers (provider-level), lack of political will, competing priorities, and shortages of available resources (organizational-level). Facilitators included a group education approach (patient-level), strong communication (provider-level), and a culture of collaboration (organizational-level).
CONCLUSIONS: Assessing determinants of implementation is important to the development of RSH interventions. CFIR constructs were found to be important influences that could facilitate or hinder effective implementation. Integration of RSH education and services is a process, and, when addressed in stages, might be feasible. A broad range of RSH education and services has the potential to have a profound impact on the health of women with OUD and their children, their families, and their communities.