Instrument development and application in studies and monitoring of ambient ammonia
During recent years, it has become clear that ammonia is an important gas in relation to different environmental issues, such as acidification, eutrophication, human health and climate change (through particle formation). Therefore, there is a growing need to develop and apply instrumentation suitable for research into emission, dispersion, conversion and deposition of ammonia and ammonium. Recently, several instruments were developed suitable for measuring concentrations in ambient conditions even at very low levels, such as ammonia sensors suitable for monitoring and research, deposition measuring systems and aerosol samplers for on-line measurement of aerosol composition. These instruments have been tested and applied in a number of field studies. These studies include dry deposition measurements, ammonium nitrate studies in relation to the (in)direct aerosol effect, emission studies and policy evaluation with concentration and deposition monitoring data. The policy evaluation study showed that the measures to reduce ammonia emissions were not as successful as projected beforehand by statistical studies.