Inequalities in health care use and expenditures: Empirical data from eight developing countries and countries in transition
This paper summarizes eight country studies of inequality in the health sector. The analysis use household data to examine the distribution of service use and health expenditures. Each study divides the population into "income" quintiles, estimated using consumption expenditures. The studies measure inequality in the use of and spending on health services. Richer groups are found to have a higher probability of obtaining care when sick, to be more likely to be seen by a doctor, and to have a higher probability of receiving medicines when they are ill, than the poorer groups...
Makinen, M., Waters, H., Rauch, M., Almagambetova, N., Bitran, R., Gilson, L., ... Ram, S. (2000). Inequalities in health care use and expenditures: Empirical data from eight developing countries and countries in transition. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 78(1), 55-65.