The effects of fasting/refeeding and untreated or insulin-treated diabetes on the bifunctional enzyme 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase and its mRNA in rat liver were determined. Both enzymatic activities fell to 20% of control values with fasting or streptozotocin-induced diabetes and were coordinately restored to normal within 48 h of refeeding or 24 h of insulin administration. These alterations in enzymatic activities were always mirrored by corresponding changes in amount of enzyme as determined by phosphoenzyme formation and immunoblotting. In contrast, mRNA for 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase did not decrease during starvation or in diabetes, but there was a 3-6-fold increase upon refeeding a high carbohydrate diet to starved rats or insulin treatment of diabetic rats. The decrease of the enzyme in starved or diabetic rats without associated changes in mRNA levels suggests a decrease in the rate of mRNA translation, an increase in enzyme degradation, or both. The rise in enzyme amount and mRNA for 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase with refeeding and insulin treatment suggests an insulin-dependent stimulation of 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase gene expression. Northern blots of RNA from heart, brain, kidney, and skeletal muscle probed with restriction fragments of a full-length cDNA from liver showed that only skeletal muscle contained an RNA species that hybridized to any of the probes. Skeletal muscle mRNA for 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase was 2.0 kilobase pairs but in contrast to the liver message (2.2 kilobase pairs) was not regulated by refeeding.
Induction of rat liver 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase mRNA by refeeding and insulin
Colosia, A. D., Marker, A. J., Lange, A. J., el-Maghrabi, M. R., Granner, D. K., Tauler, A., Pilkis, J., & Pilkis, S. J. (1988). Induction of rat liver 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase mRNA by refeeding and insulin. The Journal of Biological Chemistry, 263(35), 18669-18677.