• Article

Improving reading outcomes in Kenya First-year effects of the PRIMR Initiative

While educational participation is high in Kenya, literacy outcomes remain poor. The PRIMR Initiative aims to improve literacy learning by aligning curriculum and teacher practices with current research, providing ongoing instructional support and observation, and supplying basic instructional materials and English and Kiswahili books for students. In a randomized control trial in more than 400 schools in three counties in Kenya, the intervention improved oral reading fluency and in grade 1 formal and nonformal schools and grade 2 nonformal schools for both English and Kiswahili. The findings support the importance of in-classroom teacher support in program implementation to improve literacy outcomes.


Piper, B., Simmons Zuilkowski, S., & Mugenda, A. (2014). Improving reading outcomes in Kenya: First-year effects of the PRIMR Initiative. International Journal of Educational Development, 37, 11-21. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijedudev.2014.02.006