Impact of HIV/AIDS on care and outcomes of severe sepsis
There has been dramatic improvement in survival for patients with HIV/AIDS; however, some studies on patients with HIV/AIDS and serious illness have reported continued low rates of intensive care. The purpose of this study was to examine patterns of care and outcomes for patients with severe sepsis and HIV/AIDS and compare them with those of patients with severe sepsis without HIV/AIDS.
We assessed data from all 1999 discharge abstracts from all non-federal hospitals in six US states. Patient demographic characteristics, discharge diagnoses, resource use, and outcomes were extracted. Analyses were performed using chi-square, Wilcoxon rank sum, or regression techniques, as appropriate.
We identified 74,020 patients with severe sepsis (7,638 (10.3%) had HIV/AIDS) using ICD-9-CM codes. Patients with severe sepsis and HIV/AIDS had a similar mean length of stay (16.9 days versus 17.7 days; p = 0.0669), had lower mean hospitalization cost ($24,382 versus $30,537; p < 0.0001), were less likely to be admitted to the intensive care unit (37% versus 56%; p < 0.0001), and had a greater mortality (29% versus 20%; p < 0.0001) than those without HIV/AIDS. After adjustment for cohort differences, patients with severe sepsis and HIV/AIDS had increased likelihood of death (OR (95% CI) = 2.41 (2.23–2.61)) and were substantially less likely to be admitted to the intensive care unit (OR (95% CI) = 0.54 (0.51–0.59)). When compared with those with severe sepsis and HIV/AIDS, patients with severe sepsis without HIV/AIDS were universally more likely to be admitted to the intensive care unit, even when they had comorbid illnesses with equal or worse expected in-hospital mortality (e.g., metastatic cancer).
For patients with severe sepsis, there are differences in care and outcomes for those with HIV/AIDS. Further research is needed to examine the delivery of care for patients with severe sepsis and HIV/AIDS.