• Journal Article

Immunogenicity and reactogenicity of 1 versus 2 doses of trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine in vaccine-naive 5-8-year-old children

Citation

Neuzil, K. M., Jackson, L. A., Nelson, J., Klimov, A., Cox, N., Bridges, C. B., ... Shay, D. (2006). Immunogenicity and reactogenicity of 1 versus 2 doses of trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine in vaccine-naive 5-8-year-old children. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 194(8), 1032-1039. DOI: 10.1086/507309

Abstract

Background. Two doses of trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV) are recommended for children ! 9 years old receiving vaccine for the first time, but compliance is suboptimal. This study assessed the need for a second dose of TIV in this age group. Methods. In this prospective, open-label study, 232 influenza vaccine-naive 5-8-year-olds enrolled in a health maintenance organization received 2 doses of TIV in fall 2004. Serum for antibody titer measurement was obtained at 3 time points (n = 222). Parents completed diaries for 5 days. Results. Both doses of vaccine were well tolerated. The strongest predictor of a protective antibody response (>= 1:40) after 1 dose of TIV was baseline seropositive status. In multivariate analysis adjusting for age, sex, and baseline serostatus, the proportion of children with protective antibody responses was significantly higher after 2 doses than after 1 dose of TIV for each antigen (P <.001, for A/H1N1; P = .01 for A/H3N2; P <.001, for B). Age and sex were not independently predictive of a protective antibody response. Over one-third of children had antibody responses ! 1: 40 for the type B vaccine component, even after 2 doses. Conclusions. The present study supports the need for 2 doses of TIV in 5-8-year-olds receiving TIV for the first time. Efforts to increase compliance with the 2-dose recommendation are warranted