HIV-1 vaccines. Diversion of HIV-1 vaccine-induced immunity by gp41-microbiota cross-reactive antibodies
An HIV-1 DNA prime vaccine, with a recombinant adenovirus type 5 (rAd5) boost, failed to protect from HIV-1 acquisition. We studied the nature of the vaccine-induced antibody (Ab) response to HIV-1 envelope (Env). HIV-1-reactive plasma Ab titers were higher to Env gp41 than to gp120, and repertoire analysis demonstrated that 93% of HIV-1-reactive Abs from memory B cells responded to Env gp41. Vaccine-induced gp41-reactive monoclonal antibodies were non-neutralizing and frequently polyreactive with host and environmental antigens, including intestinal microbiota (IM). Next-generation sequencing of an immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region repertoire before vaccination revealed an Env-IM cross-reactive Ab that was clonally related to a subsequent vaccine-induced gp41-reactive Ab. Thus, HIV-1 Env DNA-rAd5 vaccine induced a dominant IM-polyreactive, non-neutralizing gp41-reactive Ab repertoire response that was associated with no vaccine efficacy.
Williams, W. B., Liao, H-X., Moody, M. A., Kepler, T. B., Alam, S. M., Gao, F., ... Haynes, B. F. (2015). HIV-1 vaccines. Diversion of HIV-1 vaccine-induced immunity by gp41-microbiota cross-reactive antibodies. Science, 349(6249). DOI: 10.1126/science.aab1253