Health care resource utilization and costs associated with nonfatal major adverse cardiovascular events
BACKGROUND: Risk of recurrent cardiovascular events following an initial cardiovascular-related hospitalization remains high despite available interventions. Rates of cardiovascular events as well as associated health care resource utilization and costs are needed to assess the value of treatments. OBJECTIVE: To quantify, in patients with previous hospitalization for acute coronary syndrome (ACS), rates of nonfatal major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) and secondary coronary events (SCE), as well as health care utilization and costs associated with a first MACE. METHODS: Administrative data from a large population of commercial managed care and managed Medicare enrollees in the United States were retrospectively analyzed. Patients with an ACS-related hospitalization from 2006 to 2011 were followed for 12 months to assess subsequent MACE and SCE rates. Patients were aged 18 years at initial ACS hospitalization (the index episode) and had >= 12 months of continuous health plan enrollment before and after the end of the index episode. Resource utilization and costs during a first MACE were assessed. Multivariable analyses were used to assess the associations between cardiovascular risk factors and the occurrence of a MACE, as well as the costs incurred during a first MACE. RESULTS: Of 75,231 study patients identified, 3.3% had a MACE and 8.3% had an SCE during the 12-month follow-up. Median time to first MACE and SCE from end of the index episode was 4.6 and 3.7 months, respectively. Mean MACE-related cost incurred during the first MACE was $19,642. Logistic analyses showed that age and diabetes were associated with increased odds of a MACE, while index ACS episodes involving ST-elevation myocardial infarction were associated with reduced odds. Findings from generalized linear models indicated that statin use and age were associated with lower episode-related costs and that MACE occurrence within 3 months of ACS hospitalization was associated with increased episode-related costs. CONCLUSIONS: MACEs and SCEs represent a common and costly burden in the year following ACS hospitalization. Our findings may inform future economic assessments of new therapies aimed at prevention of MACEs and SCEs. Copyright (C) 2015, Academy of Managed Care Pharmacy. All rights reserved
Korsnes, J., Davis, K., Ariely, R., Bell, C., & Mitra, D. (2015). Health care resource utilization and costs associated with nonfatal major adverse cardiovascular events. Journal of managed care & specialty pharmacy, 21(6), 443-450.